Immunological tests – diagnostic methods based on specific interaction of antigens and antibodies. Important information obtained through the use of immunological methods can significantly reduce the time of analysis, with high specificity to carry out screening, prediction and diagnosis of diseases. Immunological tests are used for highly sensitive assessment of biochemical features of the body by detecting the concentration of specific proteins, hormones, antibodies, study of molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of various diseases.
Department of Laboratory Diagnostics
Immunological tests are referred to:
Identification of markers of agents of social infections (hepatitis B and C, syphilis, HIV)
Hepatitis viruses are a group of infectious diseases caused by various hepatotropic viruses and are independent nosological forms with predominant liver damage that determines the outcome of the disease. The immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects the human immune system, resulting in the gradual development of immunodeficiency in infected people, which leads to increased sensitivity to a wide range of infections. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the final stage of the disease, which may develop in 2-20 years.
Diagnosis of endocrine disorders
Hormones are biologically active substances, chemical intermediaries in the transmission of information to cells that regulate a variety of vital physiological functions.
Most clinical endocrine disorders are the result of hyperfunction, hypofunction or any anatomical change in the endocrine gland or target tissue.
Hormones control the expression of genetically programmed tissue’s ability to grow and mature, the processes of energy storage and use. They play a crucial role in reproductive processes, regulate sexual development, as well as many aspects of sexual behavior in men and women. Hormone levels can vary in minutes and hours, during the day (circadian fluctuations), during weeks (menstrual cycle) or longer periods (seasonal fluctuations). Changes in blood pressure, fluid balance, glucose content or electrolyte concentrations trigger hormone systems that respond within minutes.
Hormonal tests are presented in the following tests:
Thyroid panel – thyroid hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxin, antibodies to thyroglobulin, antibodies to thyroperoxidase.
Reproductive panel – estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, prolactin, testosterone, human chorionic gonadotropin.
Studies to determine oncomarkers
Tumor markers (tumor markers) are an important component of the diagnostic complex in oncology. Oncomarkers include a large group of biological substances produced by or malignantly transformed cells, or induced by normal cells.
Researches are carried out on the automatic immunochemical analyzer.